Saturday, August 18, 2018

ROBOT TECHNOLOGY

ROBOT TECHNOLOGY


The word robot was firstly introduced to public by Czech writer Karel Capek in his play Rossum's Universal Robots (R.U.R), published in 1920. The play begins with a factory that makes artificial people known as robots.
The word "Robotics", was coined accidentally by the Russian-born, American scientist, Issac Asimov in 1940s .


Robotics is a branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI), it is mainly composed of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and computer science engineering for construction, designing and
application of robots.
Robotics is science of building or designing an application of robots. The aim of robotics is to design an efficient robot.


Robots are multifunctional, re-programmable, automatic industrial machine designed for replacing human in hazardous work.
Robots can be work as:-
  • An automatic machine sweeper
  • In space
  • A machine removing mines in a war field
  • An automatic car for a child to play with
  • In military, etc.

Aspects of Robotics

  • The robots have electrical components for providing power and control the machinery.
  • They have mechanical construction, shape, or form designed to accomplish a particular task.
  • It contains some type of computer program that determines what, when and how a robot does something.

Objective

The aim of the robot is to manipulate the objects by perceiving, moving, picking, modifying the physical properties of object.

The three laws of Robotics:

Issac Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of Robotics", and he later added a "zeroth law"
  • Zeroth Law - A robot is not allowed to injured humanity, or, through inaction it allows humanity to come to harm.
  • First Law - A robot can not injure a human being, or, through inaction it allows a human being to come to harm, unless it would violate the higher order law.
  • Second Law - A robot should follow the orders given it by human beings, except when such orders give by humans would conflict with a higher order law.
  • Third Law - A robot is allowed to protect its own existence as long as such protection would not conflict with a higher order law.

Components of a Robot

Robots are constructed with the following −
  • Power Supply − The robots are powered by batteries, solar power, hydraulic, or pneumatic power sources.
  • Actuators − They convert energy into movement.
  • Electric motors (AC/DC) − They are required for rotational movement.
  • Pneumatic Air Muscles − They contract almost 40% when air is sucked in them.
  • Muscle Wires − They contract by 5% when electric current is passed through them.
  • Piezo Motors and Ultrasonic Motors − Best for industrial robots.
  • Sensors − They provide knowledge of real time information on the task environment. Robots are equipped with vision sensors to be to compute the depth in the environment. A tactile sensor imitates the mechanical properties of touch receptors of human fingertips.

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